Home Animals Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
Animals By Will Lewis -

In the aftershock of the asteroid impact that marked the dramatic end of the dinosaurs’ dominion 66 million years ago, a select group of resilient inhabitants emerged from the shadows of extinction. These survivors, ranging from ancient reptiles and amphibians to microscopic life forms, have not only weathered the eons but have evolved and adapted to the ever-changing landscapes of our planet. How did these tenacious beings manage to defy the odds and persist through the chaos unleashed by the asteroid? Join us as we unravel the captivating stories of these survivors—forged in the crucible of ancient cataclysms—and explore the ways in which they have shaped the rich tapestry of life that graces our modern world. Embark on a journey through time with us, delving into the enduring tales of those who stood resilient amidst the wreckage, offering a glimpse into the mysteries of survival and evolution that have defined Earth’s history.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Smithsonian Magazine]


Crocodiles, bearing witness to over 200 million years of Earth’s history, stand as living relics of a bygone era. Their survival through the asteroid impact that precipitated the demise of the dinosaurs speaks to their unparalleled ability to weather environmental upheavals. The semi-aquatic lifestyle of crocodiles likely played a pivotal role in their survival during this critical period. Seeking refuge in water bodies, these resilient reptiles found a haven where they could endure the aftermath of the catastrophic event. Their remarkable adaptability, coupled with an ability to regulate body temperature by basking in the sun, allowed them to navigate the challenges of a transformed landscape.

In modern times, crocodiles have continued their evolutionary journey, showcasing an impressive array of adaptations that solidify their status as apex predators. Species like the Nile crocodile, saltwater crocodile, and American alligator exemplify the diversity within this ancient lineage. Their armored bodies serve as a testament to the success of a design perfected over millions of years, while their powerful jaws and efficient locomotion make them formidable predators in their respective ecosystems. Though some crocodile species face threats from habitat loss and human activities, their survival attests to the resilience ingrained in their ancient lineage.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via ThoughtCo]


Turtles, with their distinctive shells and remarkable anatomy, stand as enduring symbols of ancient reptilian lineage, having navigated Earth’s dynamic landscapes for over 200 million years. Their survival during the tumultuous era marked by the asteroid impact that led to mass extinctions can be attributed to their ingenious defense mechanism—the ability to retreat into their shells. This unique adaptation served as an effective shield against predators and environmental disruptions, allowing turtles to weather the storms of ecological change. The versatility of turtles, equally at home in both aquatic and terrestrial realms, likely played a pivotal role in their ability to carve out niches in the post-impact world. Additionally, their comparatively low metabolic rates and capability for extended periods of dormancy provided a buffer, enabling them to endure challenging conditions that followed the catastrophic event.

In the modern era, turtles continue to enchant with their diverse array of species, ranging from the majestic sea turtles gracefully navigating oceans to the slow-moving tortoises that tread the land. Each species, such as the loggerhead turtle, leatherback turtle, and snapping turtle, reflects distinct evolutionary trajectories and survival strategies honed over millennia. Despite contemporary threats like habitat degradation and illegal poaching, turtles exhibit remarkable resilience. Conservation initiatives worldwide are dedicated to safeguarding these ancient marvels, recognizing the importance of preserving their unique evolutionary contributions to the planet’s biodiversity.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Earth.com]


Frogs, belonging to the order Anura, are amphibians that have been inhabitants of Earth for an impressive 200 million years. These remarkable creatures have survived and adapted through various environmental changes, including the catastrophic asteroid impact that marked the end of the Cretaceous period and the extinction of the dinosaurs. The secret to their survival lies in their highly adaptable nature. With permeable skin that allows for respiration, frogs can thrive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, providing them with a unique advantage during times of ecological upheaval.

In the wake of the asteroid impact, frogs continued to evolve, diversifying into a myriad of species that inhabit nearly every corner of the globe. Modern frogs exhibit an astonishing array of adaptations, from tree-dwelling species with adhesive toe pads to those that have evolved vibrant skin colors as a form of communication or defense. Some species have developed unique reproductive strategies, such as the incredible diversity of mating calls and the remarkable parental care exhibited by certain frog species.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Australian Geographic]


Lizards, a diverse group of reptiles with over 6,000 known species, have been resilient inhabitants of Earth for approximately 230 million years. Their survival through the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs can be attributed to their remarkable ability to adapt to various environmental conditions. Lizards, with their scaly bodies and a wide range of ecological niches, managed to persist through the aftermath of the asteroid impact by exploiting diverse habitats and food sources. The versatility of lizard adaptations, from specialized limbs for climbing to unique jaw structures for capturing prey, allowed them to thrive in different ecosystems.

Since the extinction event, lizards have undergone significant evolutionary changes, resulting in the diverse array of species we observe today. Some have developed specialized features, such as the ability to glide or even fly, like the Draco lizards. Others have evolved intricate camouflage techniques or adapted to extreme environments, showcasing the remarkable plasticity of lizard evolution. Today, lizards play crucial roles in ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to biodiversity and demonstrating the enduring success of their lineage.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs


Birds, descendants of avian dinosaurs, have graced the skies of our planet for an impressive 150 million years. The key to their survival during the asteroid impact that spelled the end for their dinosaur relatives lies in their remarkable adaptations. Possessing lightweight, feathered bodies and the extraordinary ability to fly, birds swiftly adjusted to the changing post-impact environment. This adaptability allowed them to exploit diverse ecological niches, ensuring their continued presence and marking them as living testaments to the power of evolutionary innovation in the face of devastating events.

After the ramifications of the asteroid impact, birds embarked on an extraordinary journey of adaptive radiation, leading to the magnificent diversity of avian species observed today. From the soaring majesty of eagles to the agile elegance of hummingbirds, birds have evolved to occupy an extensive array of ecological roles. The development of distinctive feathered adaptations has played a pivotal role in their success, serving functions beyond mere flight. Specialized bills have emerged for various feeding strategies, vibrant plumage has become a canvas for courtship displays, and unique song patterns have evolved for communication.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via USNews]


Fish, the fascinating and diverse group of aquatic vertebrates, have been navigating Earth’s waters for an astounding 500 million years. This extraordinary longevity is a testament to their adaptability to a range of aquatic environments and reproductive strategies that enabled their survival through significant environmental upheavals, including the mass extinction event around 66 million years ago. The adaptability and resilience of fish, with their remarkable variety of forms and behaviors, have allowed them to thrive in a plethora of habitats, from the serenity of freshwater streams to the mysterious depths of the ocean.

Post-extinction event, the evolutionary journey of fish continued, giving rise to the astonishing diversity of modern fish species. The emergence of jawed fish, a group that includes both sharks and bony fish, marked a pivotal evolutionary milestone, paving the way for the development of more sophisticated feeding mechanisms and behaviors. In the ever-changing aquatic landscapes, fish have evolved complex strategies to exploit ecological niches, showcasing an impressive range of forms, sizes, and lifestyles. From the agile predators that dominate open waters to the specialized filter feeders that thrive in nutrient-rich environments, modern fish species play integral roles in shaping aquatic ecosystems.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via TheScientist]


Beetles, an extraordinary group of insects boasting over 350,000 known species, stand as the largest order in the insect world, with a remarkable history spanning approximately 300 million years. The key to their survival through rough periods, including the asteroid impact that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs, lies in their adaptability. Beetles’ ability to scuttle, crawl, or fly across a wide range of landscapes, coupled with their diverse feeding habits and the protective shield of their exoskeletons, granted them the versatility needed to navigate and thrive in ever-changing ecosystems. These attributes positioned beetles to exploit an expansive array of ecological niches, providing them with the resilience required to endure the challenging consequences of the catastrophic asteroid impact.

In the wake of the asteroid impact, beetles embarked on a fascinating evolutionary trajectory, diversifying into an astonishing array of species, each equipped with unique adaptations. Some beetles developed intricate forms of mimicry, adopting colors and shapes that mimic their surroundings to deter predators effectively. Others evolved specialized mouthparts tailored for feeding on specific plant tissues, showcasing the nuanced coevolutionary relationships between beetles and their plant counterparts. The ecological contributions of beetles have proven indispensable—ranging from their role as efficient pollinators to their involvement in the vital processes of decomposition and predation.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Gardner’s Path]


Ferns, botanical relics with roots stretching back approximately 360 million years, stand as enduring witnesses to the eons of Earth’s evolutionary history. Having withstood multiple mass extinction events, including the asteroid impact that precipitated the demise of the dinosaurs, ferns have proven their resilience. During the crucial moments following the asteroid impact, ferns employed a survival strategy centered around reproductive structures known as spores. These microscopic entities enabled ferns to swiftly colonize disturbed environments and efficiently recolonize areas where vegetation had suffered losses. This adaptability played a pivotal role in the post-apocalyptic recovery of ecosystems, allowing ferns to reclaim landscapes that had been altered by the catastrophic events of that era.

Ferns embarked on a trajectory of ongoing evolution, displaying a remarkable ability to adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. Although they might not command the same visual prominence as their flowering counterparts, ferns play indispensable roles in forest ecosystems. Nestled in the understory, they provide crucial habitat for various organisms and contribute significantly to nutrient cycling. The diverse array of fern species has evolved unique reproductive strategies, ensuring their persistence in environments as varied as tropical rainforests and arid deserts.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via BBC Science Focus]


Bacteria, the humble yet omnipresent microorganisms, boast a staggering 3.5 billion-year legacy on Earth. Their microscopic stature, combined with an unparalleled ability to rapidly reproduce and diverse metabolic capabilities, has rendered them the oldest and most abundant life forms on our planet. In the wake of the asteroid impact that heralded the end of the Cretaceous period, bacteria showcased their remarkable adaptability, surviving and even thriving amidst the environmental upheavals. Their ability to endure extreme conditions, ranging from the crushing depths of deep-sea vents to the aridity of deserts, not only allowed bacteria to withstand the challenges of the post-impact world but also positioned them as indispensable architects of Earth’s ecosystems.

In the contemporary era, bacteria continue their evolutionary journey with unparalleled speed, revealing a vast reservoir of genetic diversity and adaptability. These microorganisms play multifaceted roles, serving as essential components in fundamental processes such as nutrient cycling and nitrogen fixation. Beyond their ecological functions, bacteria have become pivotal players in human health, industrial processes, and agriculture. However, the ongoing narrative of bacterial evolution is not without challenges, as witnessed in the relentless development of antibiotic resistance. This evolutionary response underscores the dynamic interplay between microorganisms and their environments, highlighting the perpetual struggle for survival and adaptation.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via National Geographic]


Sharks, existing for roughly 450 million years, stand as enduring symbols of marine resilience. As ancient marine predators, they have gracefully navigated the oceans, adapting to ever-changing environmental conditions. The secret to their longevity lies in the fundamental design of their bodies—cartilaginous skeletons and streamlined forms that facilitated survival through the tumultuous times, including the catastrophic asteroid impact. These anatomical features, coupled with efficient swimming mechanisms, allowed sharks to explore and exploit various ecological niches, positioning them as one of the oldest vertebrate groups on Earth. Diverse feeding strategies, ranging from the great white shark’s powerful predatory prowess to the gentle filter-feeding habits of the whale shark, further contributed to the sharks’ remarkable success in the evolutionary marathon.

In the wake of the mass extinction event, sharks embarked on a continued journey of evolution, shaping the diverse array of species that grace our oceans today. The apex predators of the seas, such as the great white shark, have finely tuned their predatory tactics, while others, like the filter-feeding whale shark, have evolved to thrive as gentle giants. The contemporary oceans, however, present new challenges for these ancient creatures. Overfishing and habitat degradation threaten their populations, yet sharks persist through remarkable resilience. Evolution has gifted them unique reproductive strategies, and conservation efforts strive to safeguard their pivotal roles as top predators.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
{Image via PetHelpful]


Snakes, fascinating legless reptiles with a lineage stretching back approximately 150 million years, have navigated the twists and turns of Earth’s evolutionary history with remarkable adaptability. The secret to their survival during the tumultuous times, including the asteroid impact that marked the end of the Cretaceous period, lies in their unique features. The absence of limbs, elongated bodies, and specialized feeding mechanisms allowed them to persist through the extinction event, showcasing their ability to exploit diverse ecological niches. From the dense canopies of forests to the arid expanses of deserts, snakes’ flexibility in habitat selection contributed significantly to their enduring presence in the ever-changing landscapes of our planet.

In the post-asteroid impact world snakes embarked on a journey of diversification that led to the emergence of a multitude of species, each equipped with distinctive adaptations. The evolution of venomous vipers and constricting pythons exemplifies the diverse strategies these reptiles have developed for survival. Innovations such as infrared vision, allowing some species to detect heat signatures in the dark, and highly flexible jaw structures for swallowing large prey whole are testaments to the ongoing adaptability of different snake lineages. Some species have even developed specialized behaviors for hunting and reproduction, further showcasing the evolutionary innovation within this enigmatic group.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via PETA UK]


Crustaceans, a remarkable group of arthropods, have been flourishing in Earth’s aquatic realms for an astonishing span of over 500 million years. Their evolutionary success is attributed to distinctive features such as exoskeletons, jointed appendages, and a diverse array of body forms that collectively contributed to their resilience during the catastrophic asteroid impact that marked the end of the Cretaceous period. The ability of crustaceans, which include iconic members like crabs, lobsters, and shrimp, to inhabit a wide range of marine and freshwater habitats highlights their adaptability and ensured their continuous presence in the ecosystems that emerged post-extinction.

Crustaceans embarked on an evolutionary journey, diversifying into an impressive array of forms that adapted to a myriad of ecological roles. Some crustaceans developed intricate social structures, forming colonies or exhibiting cooperative behaviors for tasks such as reproduction or defense. Others evolved specialized appendages, tailored to specific feeding behaviors, allowing them to exploit diverse food sources in aquatic environments. Crustaceans, serving as both scavengers and predators, play pivotal roles in maintaining the balance of marine and freshwater ecosystems.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Underwater360]


Sponges, with a lineage extending over 500 million years, stand as remarkable witnesses to Earth’s ancient history. As primitive multicellular organisms, sponges lack the complexity of true tissues and organs, yet their survival is a testament to their ability to adapt to the dynamic challenges presented by Earth’s ever-evolving ecosystems. During the catastrophic asteroid impact that marked the end of the dinosaurs, sponges exhibited a survival strategy rooted in their resilient and adaptable nature. Their sessile lifestyle, firmly attached to surfaces in marine environments, likely shielded them from the immediate devastation, allowing them to endure through the turbulent aftermath.

In the present era, sponges continue to be integral components of marine ecosystems, playing a vital role in maintaining water quality through their efficient filtration processes. Beyond their ecological contributions, sponges have garnered attention in pharmaceutical research due to their unique biochemical properties. While the fundamental body plan of sponges has persisted relatively unchanged, the ongoing exploration of deep-sea environments has unveiled new sponge species, showcasing their adaptability even in extreme conditions.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Popular Mechanics]


Cephalopods, a group of marine invertebrates including squids, octopuses, and cuttlefish, possess an astonishing evolutionary history that spans over 500 million years. Their lineage places them among the oldest surviving creatures on Earth, a testament to their resilience and adaptability. As the asteroid impact loomed, cephalopods found sanctuary in their deep-sea habitats. The profound darkness and pressure of the ocean depths shielded them from the immediate cataclysmic effects above, providing a haven where survival instincts could be honed. Agile and swift, their mobility became a critical factor in post-impact adaptation. Cephalopods swiftly navigated the vast oceans, finding new niches and evolving to thrive in the changing conditions.

In the modern era, cephalopods continue to be pivotal components of marine ecosystems, their existence a living testament to their survival strategies. Octopuses, renowned for their intelligence, have developed intricate camouflage abilities and advanced problem-solving skills. These adaptations enable them to navigate and thrive in a variety of habitats, demonstrating the flexibility that has allowed cephalopods to persist for millions of years. Squids showcase remarkable speed and agility, traits finely tuned through evolutionary pressures. Studying the ancient origins and ongoing evolution of cephalopods not only enriches our understanding of Earth’s biological history but also gives a sense of urgency to conservation efforts.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Wildlife Informer]


Mollusks, a fascinating and diverse group of invertebrates encompassing snails, clams, and octopuses, boast a remarkable lineage that stretches back to the Cambrian period, spanning over an impressive 500 million years of Earth’s history. Their evolutionary journey has been marked by unparalleled adaptability, enabling them to inhabit a wide array of environments, ranging from the depths of the ocean to freshwater habitats and even terrestrial landscapes. When the catastrophic asteroid impact occurred, the resilience and versatility of mollusks likely played a pivotal role in their survival. Certain species sought refuge in protected environments, such as the ocean depths or secluded terrestrial spaces, escaping the immediate catastrophic consequences and laying the foundation for their post-impact resilience.

In the modern era, mollusks continue to thrive, demonstrating an extraordinary array of adaptations that have allowed them to persist and flourish across diverse ecosystems. Snails, with their remarkable diversity, have evolved intricate shell structures and reproductive strategies that reflect their ability to adapt to different niches. Octopuses, on the other hand, showcase highly developed intelligence and problem-solving skills, underscoring the advanced capabilities that have evolved over millions of years. Bivalves, including clams and mussels, contribute significantly to marine ecosystems through their filter-feeding behavior, influencing water quality and nutrient cycling.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via Excel Pest Services]


Cockroaches, often hailed for their remarkable resilience and adaptability, boast a lineage that stretches back an astonishing 300 million years. These ancient insects managed to weather the storm of the mass extinction event that obliterated the dinosaurs, showcasing an unparalleled ability to thrive in diverse environments and endure adverse conditions. The key to their survival likely lies in a combination of factors, including their relatively simple anatomy, rapid reproductive rates, and efficient feeding habits. This adaptability allowed cockroaches to navigate the post-impact world, where many species struggled to recover.

In modern times, cockroaches have become ubiquitous inhabitants of both urban jungles and natural environments across the globe. Their ability to persist in various settings showcases their unparalleled adaptability. Furthermore, their resilience to environmental stressors, including the use of pesticides, showcases their evolutionary flexibility. Although often considered pests, comprehending the evolutionary journey of cockroaches is crucial not only for refining pest control strategies but also for gaining a deeper understanding of the intricate dynamics of life on Earth. The endurance and adaptability of these ancient insects offer valuable insights into the mechanisms that sustain life through changing epochs, highlighting the interconnectedness of species within the complex tapestry of our planet’s biodiversity.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[mage via Healthline]

Horsetails (Equisetum)

Horsetails (Equisetum), ancient botanical survivors with a lineage stretching back to the Devonian period over 350 million years ago, hold a unique place in Earth’s evolutionary chronicles. These hardy plants bore witness to the dynamic shifts in terrestrial ecosystems, standing resilient against the tide of changing landscapes. Enduring the cataclysmic asteroid impact that triggered mass extinctions, horsetails demonstrated their remarkable adaptability, thriving in a spectrum of environments ranging from waterlogged wetlands to arid expanses. Their robust, jointed stems and reproductive prowess through spores played pivotal roles in their post-apocalyptic survival, allowing them to endure and evolve.

In today’s time, horsetails, though represented by fewer species than in their primeval heyday, continue to contribute significantly to diverse ecosystems. Their adaptation strategies include a high silica content, rendering them resistant to herbivores and offering a natural defense mechanism. Beyond their resilience, horsetails actively participate in ecological processes, contributing to soil stabilization in wetland areas. Understanding the evolutionary trajectory of these ancient plants not only unveils the intricate dance between life forms and their environments over millions of years but also stresses the role they play in shaping contemporary ecosystems, emphasizing the importance of their conservation in preserving Earth’s living history.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via National Zoo]

Mole Rats

Mole rats, fascinating subterranean rodents with a lineage stretching back over 30 million years, have skillfully maneuvered through the dynamic changes in Earth’s landscapes. Their survival during the catastrophic asteroid impact that marked the end of the dinosaurs can be attributed to their distinctive subterranean lifestyle, providing a natural shield from the immediate environmental disruptions. The ability of mole rats to burrow into the earth and establish intricate underground colonies played a pivotal role in their post-impact adaptation, enabling them to seek refuge and thrive in the altered conditions of the aftermath. This unique trait allowed them to navigate the challenges posed by the mass extinction event and laid the foundation for their evolutionary success.

In common times, mole rats remain resilient inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, where their survival is a testament to their exceptional adaptations. The highly social and cooperative behaviors exhibited within mole rat colonies have been instrumental in their ability to thrive in diverse environments. The intricate relationships between individual mole rats within colonies, combined with their specialized subterranean habitats, underscore the importance of understanding the evolutionary history of these remarkable rodents. Conservation efforts become increasingly crucial as we recognize the significance of preserving the unique adaptations that have allowed mole rats to persist for millions of years, contributing to the rich tapestry of life on Earth.

Things That Actually Survived the Asteroid That Took Out The Dinosaurs
[Image via NSTA]

Horseshoe Crabs

Horseshoe crabs, revered as living fossils with a lineage extending over an astonishing 450 million years, are a testament to the enduring resilience of ancient marine life. The distinctive horseshoe-shaped carapace that characterizes these arthropods has remained relatively unchanged over the millennia, earning them the moniker of living fossils. During the cataclysmic asteroid impact that triggered mass extinctions, horseshoe crabs demonstrated an exceptional survival strategy. Their preference for shallow coastal waters provided a haven, shielding them from the more severe consequences of the environmental upheaval. This adaptability and ability to withstand varying environmental conditions likely played a crucial role in ensuring their continued existence.

In the post-impact world, horseshoe crabs embarked on an evolutionary journey, diversifying into different species that adapted to various coastal ecosystems. This evolution allowed them to carve out ecological niches and thrive in environments shaped by the aftermath of the mass extinction event. In the contemporary era, the significance of horseshoe crabs in marine ecosystems cannot be overstated. Their eggs, laid in abundance along coastal shores, serve as a critical food source for migratory shorebirds during their long journeys. Furthermore, the blue blood of horseshoe crabs contains a substance called Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), which is integral to the detection of bacterial contamination in medical applications, ensuring the safety of vaccines and medical equipment. Recognizing the ecological and biomedical importance of horseshoe crabs, ongoing conservation efforts are diligently underway to safeguard their populations and preserve the delicate balance they contribute to marine ecosystems.

Where Do We Find This Stuff? Here Are Our Sources:

Crocodiles: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-9121809/Scientists-discover-crocodiles-survived-asteroid-strike-wiped-dinosaurs.html

Turtles: https://www.livescience.com/14984-tough-turtles-survive-extinction-event.html

Frogs: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-frogs-survived-the-asteroid-impact-that-wiped-out-dinosaurs-180981195/

Lizards: https://www.cbc.ca/news/science/lizards-snakes-almost-went-extinct-with-dinosaurs-1.1266168

Birds: https://theconversation.com/how-did-birds-survive-while-dinosaurs-went-extinct-197185

Fish: https://www.science.org/content/article/fish-diversity-exploded-when-dinosaurs-went-extinct

Beetles: https://phys.org/news/2020-03-beetles-diet-cretaceous-period.html

Ferns: https://www.the-scientist.com/notebook/why-did-ferns-persist-when-all-other-plants-perished-70325

Bacteria: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/01/science/asteroid-dinosaurs-crater-bacteria.html

Sharks: https://www.newsweek.com/how-sharks-survived-mass-extinction-asteroid-killed-dinosaurs-1783743

Snakes: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-58559735

Crustaceans: https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/science/marine-predators-reshaped-ocean-life-mass-extinction-scale/

Sponges: https://www.livescience.com/57864-sponges-thrived-after-mass-extinction.html

Cephalopods: https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/invertebrates/cephalopods

Mollusks: https://www.iflscience.com/how-some-sea-snails-survived-a-mass-extinction-66031

Cockroaches: https://www.livescience.com/how-cockroaches-survived-dino-killing-asteroid

Horsetails: https://themeaningofwater.com/2022/10/02/from-giant-tree-to-little-plant-equisetum-a-study-an-evolution/

Mole Rats: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789728/

Horse Shoe Crabs: https://phys.org/news/2012-01-horseshoe-crabs-nature-great-survivors.html