4. Emperor penguins are the tallest and largest of all the penguins.
These penguins are one of nature’s great survivors and are exclusively found in the Antarctic. There, the water temperatures remain around the freezing point for saltwater. To cope with the Antarctic weather, emperor penguins have the highest feather density of any bird species, with around 100 feathers covering one square inch of skin. In the water, these feathers flatten to create a waterproof outer layer, which protects the penguins’ insulating down from becoming saturated with cold water. They also huddle together in tightly-packed groups to conserve heat and shelter themselves from the intense winds. Occasionally, these huddles can be too good at keeping the emperor penguins warm. The penguins on the outside of the huddle regularly muscle their way inside as they face the direct hit of Antarctica’s icy wind chill. In addition, the penguins on the inside get too hot, so after a while, they need a little room to cool off.