“Big Baby” Galaxies Formed Very Differently Than We Assumed
Spitzer yet again managed to come across some old universal content. The telescope found the earliest-forming galaxies ever studied. Light from those galaxies took billions of years to reach Earth. This is cool to see too, as scientists are seeing the galaxies as they were those billions of years ago. Naturally, they are over 13 billion years old, which is about 400 million years after the initial birth of the universe. To be able to see these baby galaxies’ form is incredible for science.
We can see how similar our galaxy is to them. The discovery of the baby galaxies was interesting, as they were far larger and mature than we originally assumed for early forming galaxies. Most scientists believed that the large, modern galaxies formed via gradual mergers of smaller galaxies. However, these large galaxies formed by a collection of stars that came together very early in history. All of this is amazing, but clearly one of the freakiest things NASA discovered in recent memory.
If you saw the original Star Wars film, and felt the Binary Star System that was on Tattooine was not believable, we now know this is possible. However, we were not aware that one could have three suns. That’s right, there is a triple-star system out there. Known as KIC 2856960, it was discovered by the Kepler Space Observatory. It took around 4 years for the team to study this system. Apparently, the system has one large star and two dwarf stars.
Kepler originally noticed a system with four daily dips of light curves. This happens because each dwarf star crossed by the other every 6 hours. Another dip in light was noticed for 204 consecutive days. That was due to the large star eclipsing. It’s speculated that the large star moved so slowly that the other two stars could not get light through. Some speculate that the way light operates here could indicate that it actually has 4 stars. Clearly, this is one of the freakiest things NASA discovered.
Year Discovered:2012 (later confirmed through NASA’s WISE telescope)
Location: 130 Lightyears From Earth
When the rogue planet known as CFBDSIR2149 was discovered in 2012, the scientific community was astonished. Usually, planets tend to orbit stars. If a planet does not orbit one, it is usually a dead planet that’s likely frozen and/or broken up in parts. However, CFBDSIR2149 is unique. Not only does it not orbit a star, but it’s not some broken apart planet filled with mostly ice. It’s actually around seven times larger than Jupiter.
While scientists believe there are many rogue planets out there, possibly even more than those that orbit stars, we simply have not discovered them. This was the first of its kind to be a complete, large planet that just drifts around space. It is speculated that the planet originally came from the AB Doradus star system. The planet is pretty young too, at roughly 50 to 120 million years old. It is now roughly 130 lightyears from Earth, but not expected to come into our star system
Largest Water Supply In The Universe Sits Around One Black Hole
Year Discovered: 2011
If you truly want to know about one of the freakiest things NASA discovered, look no further than the APM 08279+5255 quasar. While water is essential to human life, and most life in general, one black hole seems to be hoarding the largest supply of it in the universe. Quasars are known to be compact objects, appearing a lot like stars with luminosity often equivalent to a star. Yet they are not truly stars and appear to be powered by nearby supermassive black holes.
The specific quasar in question, APM 08279+5255, is near a black hole surrounded by a vapor cloud. Inside the cloud is 140 trillion times the amount of water found on the entire Earth. This is the most water found in any one area of the universe. It is 12 billion lightyears away from us. Since light travels to us as a form of previous history and not present-day material, some of this water could be gone now. Scientists assume this cloud formed roughly 1.6 billion years after the universe itself formed.
Recently, a cosmic gas cloud showed signs of a mysterious heartbeat. Sitting in the Aquila constellation, the cloud somehow connects perfectly with a nearby black hole. This cloud was discovered by both the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and NASA’s Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The team found that the cloud “beats” in rhythm with the small black hole. This black hole, however, is located roughly 100 lightyears from the cloud. The black hole is in a microquasar system called SS 433.
The system also has a giant star, 30 times the size of our Sun. This microquasar eats up a lot of light, and orbits with this large star. As they orbit each other, the black hole pulls in matter from the star, causing an accretion disk around the black hole itself. Part of the matter from this star doesn’t drain into the black hole but shoots out high-speed particles and strong magnetic fields. The particles speed off like a jet, producing x-rays and gamma rays. Giving the quasar and cloud their heartbeat.
One of the freakiest things NASA discovered is certainly the existence of vampire stars. They get their name honestly, as one star manages to suck the energy away from another. Usually, this involves a binary star system where usually one white dwarf star is primary and a second mass transferring star is secondary. The stars are incredibly close to one another, causing gravity from the white dwarf to distort the secondary star. The white dwarf is accreting matter from its companion.
This companion star is often called a “donor star” as it’s giving itself to the white dwarf. The infalling matter is rich in hydrogen too, only helping the dwarf star’s energy. An accretion disk is formed, where strong UV and X-Ray emissions are present. The companion star eventually loses gravitational energy. Usually, the white dwarf gets what it needs, but it can suck up too much from its companion and reach a Type Ia supernova. This is all so vampire-like that it’s scary.
Location:Gliese 436 Star System, Leo Constellation
Have you ever put your hand under super-hot water and your hand originally was cold until you experienced the burn? What about a warm feeling before touching something bitterly cold? This is not just something humans experience, as it can (sort of) happen to planets too. The Gliese 436b planet is certainly a paradox for astronomers. This exoplanet is almost exclusively made from ice. Yet somehow, it is also on fire.
On the surface of the planet, the temperature reaches 822 degrees Fahrenheit (439 degrees Celsius). In spite of this, the planet maintains its icy landscape, remaining completely frozen. How does it accomplish this? At first, scientists did not know but eventually, they found that the immense gravitational force exerted by the planet’s core was the cause. This force makes ice much denser, allowing it to handle high levels of heat. It even compresses water vapor that might normally evaporate.
We all know by now that black holes suck up everything around them. While it might appear to those watching that something is moving into the black hole at a snail-slow pace, it is long gone. This is quite interesting because as a black hole absorbs things, most assume it can only absorb so much before it must spit stuff out. This is why many assumed for years that black holes might open up elsewhere. The proposal that something like this had to be the case comes from Igor Novikov.
In 1964, the Russian Physicist used Einstein’s field equations to come to his conclusion. He coined the “white hole” theory, which proposed that, unlike a black hole that uses gravity to suck things up, white holes use gravity to push things away. Which made many assume that the white hole spits out things a black hole absorbed. NASA has come across things that appeared like white holes. While they might not operate exactly as we assumed, it appears to be at least possible.
Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources: