Likely everyone by now knows about the unique Hoag’s Object. It is a galaxy unlike most that we’ve ever come across. Most astronomers have been amazed by it for years. While this is a ring galaxy or a galaxy with a circular appearance, we did not know much more upon its discovery in 1950. Found by Arthur Hoag, he could not decide if it was a planetary nebula or a peculiar galaxy. It’s kind of both, technically. We know this ring, which spans 100,000 lightyears, has roughly 8 billion stars within it. This almost ensures alien worlds are present, but they are over 600 million lightyears away from Earth.
If they saw Earth 600 million years ago, what would they see? Some of the first animals already formed. This came after millions of years being what is essentially a snowball Earth. Multi-celled animals began to flourish at this point, including worms and sponges. Taconic orogeny, or mountain building, began at this time in North America and did not end for another 200 million years. Plus, the Aravalli Range in India’s subcontinent also formed along with the Australian continent. Before Antarctica began to get cold, mountains began to form on its landmass during this time period as well.
Reticulum II is one of the few galaxies that are less than 100,000 lightyears from Earth. While scientists did not discover this dwarf galaxy until 2015, it’s actually a pretty old galaxy. It has been very hard to see, which is why it took analyzing images using the Dark Energy Survey. Initially, scientists believed it was a globular cluster but it was far too large for that. The galaxy contains both a blue horizontal and a red giant branch of stars. This means it likely has some very unusual elements and enrichment, as well as high radiation. Some think the uniqueness of the galaxy is due to the collision of two neutron stars.
It is unknown exactly how many stars this galaxy has, we have found five stars with confirmed planets. Thus, alien worlds could be present. It is a little over 97,000 lightyears from Earth. At this point, homo sapiens were beginning to populate the planet. A land bridge eventually formed from modern-day Siberia to Alaska, which resulted in early homo sapiens eventually traveling across it to become the Native Americans we know today. That land bridge went away, sadly. Meaning Native Americans would be isolated from the rest of the world, like indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand.
Medusa Major is an interesting place in our universe. This is an area where there are several interacting galaxies. It is hard to keep up with them all so we won’t even go there. Over 500 lightyears of space exist in the center, often referred to as the Eye of Medusa. While it is the central, gas-rich region of Medusa Merger, it is also the place where extreme star formation has been taking place. That results in stars forming relatively close, making the local galaxies interact more.
With this area being 130 million lightyears from us, we know alien worlds will not see the best Earth possible. Yet they will see one in major development. This might be the Late Cretaceous period, but it’s geologically known as the Cenomanian. Around this point, an anoxic recent happened. That is a period in which a lot of the Earth’s oceans began to lose oxygen. Remember, water is H2O. Without oxygen, it is simply hydrogen and thus toxic. That led to a nearly worldwide extinction event for several aquatic/marine species. It is now referred to as the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event.
Number Of Stars:Classified As Emerging Galaxy (Star Number Uncertain)
A peculiar galaxy, Mayall’s Object is technically the result of two different galaxies colliding at some point within the Ursa Major constellation. It was discovered by Nicholas U. Mayall, resulting in its name. The galaxies that collided seemed to do a lot of damage. Since the galaxy is ring-shaped with a tail emerging, it is believed a shockwave must have taken place. That would have drawn matter into the center, leading to the emergence of the ring we see today. It is possibly one of the most beautiful collisions we’ve ever seen. Though uncertain, alien worlds are thought to be present here.
If so, they’d see the Earth 450 million years in its past. The Ordovician-Silurian Extinction took place at this point. Most then living marine species died out. Second, the Old Rest Sandstone Continent began to form. This came as a result of Baltica and Laurentia. While Baltica is merely a paleocontinent, Laurentia would go on to form most of the ancient geological core of North America. Laurentia was often its own continent or supercontinent. This led to run-ins with others. Thus, part of it would go on to form a large portion of Greenland and the northwestern portion of modern-day Scotland.
Number Of Stars:Untold Millions (We’ve Seen 37 So Far)
The Ophiuchus Galaxy Cluster happens to form the far wall of the Ophiuchus Void. Although, it is also connected, at least in a filament, with both the Pavo-Indus-Telesopium and Hercules Superclusters too. It resides in the center of the cD cluster, which has roughly two more galaxy clusters and four more galaxy groups. Plus, several more field galaxies too. It is like they have teamed up to have their own United Federation of Planets! The cD Galaxy of NeVe 1 is a site in this supercluster that erupted, triggered by an ejection of ~270 million solar masses from the supermassive black hole in NeVe 1.
It is the largest explosion in the universe since the Big Bang, and opened up a 1.5 million lightyear wide cavity in the Ophiuchus Supercluster! This is scary to think about, as Ophiuchus is just 390,000 lightyears away. On Earth at that time, we saw the Hoxnian Interglacial period, which led to the true formation of the British Isles. Humans then began to settle there after a while. However, during this period in history, the Homo Sapien had not come about. Rather, it was our Neanderthal ancestors that popped up at this point.
Among the “local group” of full galaxies, Triangulum I is the third largest. In fact, it is considered the furthest universal body that can be seen with the naked eye. Roughly 3 million lightyears away, it is believed to be one of Andromeda’s satellite galaxies. Yet some scientists think it’s actually coming out of a previous interaction with another galaxy. Then as it reached the massive Andromeda and its gravitational pull, it had no choice but to become a satellite. Interestingly, Triangulum I has an H II nucleus. Which is simply a nucleus made of ionized atomic hydrogen.
If alien worlds viewed Earth from here, they’d be seeing some changes. First, they would be seeing the North Pole start to become glacial. We’d also begin to see some animals pop up that are often assumed to be part of the dinosaurs. Species like the saber-toothed tiger and wooly mammoth were both common in this timeframe. Both even lived long enough to come in contact with early humans. Neither are dinosaurs, obviously, but they are still part of the prehistoric species list. Not only this, but other megafauna popped up in this time, including several much larger plants.
Noted as an irregular dwarf galaxy, many have disputed the idea of it holding the “galaxy” tag for a while. This is why some actually refuse to call it that and instead use the name “Canis Major Overdensity.” What everyone agrees on is that it possesses a ton of red giant stars. These stars are naturally in their latter lifecycle, meaning this area will eventually be home to a large percentage of supernovas or they could be hijacked by others, such as vampire stars. All in all, in spite of the red giant stars, Canis Major is home to roughly a billion stars.
It is also just about 25,000 lightyears away, making it very close to us. About 10,000 years before this is when our modern calendar takes place. It is also when the extinction of the Neanderthals came to pass. A few thousand years after this is when the oldest cave paintings were traced back to. This is at least one of the last glacial periods, so alien worlds would likely see a cold planet but nothing compared to beforehand. While animal and society changes are incredibly different, this is the closest version of “Earth” itself that alien worlds could view.
Malin 1 is the largest spiral galaxy science has ever discovered as of this writing. We do not have a lot of information on the galaxy due to it being a little over one billion lightyears away from us. Most of our images are even blurred, making it hard to really get an idea about their star count. Due to the distance, the light it emits is not very bright. Weirdly, we assume the distance is the problem entirely. However, we’ve seen other galaxies just as far away that are much brighter. This is why some scientists naturally assume Malin 1 has a lot of older stars that are losing their luminosity.
If alien worlds in this galaxy looked at Earth, they might scoff a bit at what we looked like to them. The first known plants came to be just a few million years before the 1.19 billion mark. Shortly after, the first supercontinent, Rodinia, formed that would be huge for the development of future species. This means the landmass we’d later see, especially a lot of the glacial periods, has not happened yet. The Earth was still very much in a very hot, dense period. It would be another 200 million years before we saw the snowball Earth. Something almost opposite to the Earth from even 1 billion years ago.
While Messier 87 is a supergiant galaxy with more than one trillion stars, it is seemingly in a backyard compared to the distance of other galaxies. It’s a little over 50 million lightyears from Earth. Which is pretty close compared to other galaxies out there. Scientists used this closeness to their advantage a short time ago. The galaxy has a supermassive black hole at its center, like many other galaxies. Scientists managed to capture an image of this black hole, the very first image of a true black hole ever! Their black hole happens to be 6.5 billion times the mass of our sun, which is crazy to think about.
Being roughly 53 million lightyears from us, alien worlds present there would be seeing the Earth in one of its best periods of change. India collided with Asia, leading to the formation of the Himalayas. The Azolla Event happened around this time as well. This was a period in which freshwater fern Azolla bloomed in the Arctic Ocean. The Azolla sank to the seafloor, becoming incorporated in the sediment there. That led to carbon dioxide reducing, taking away the “Greenhouse Earth.” Palm Trees and amphibians could now properly live at the poles. However, the North and South Poles would turn glacial in the “Icehouse Earth.”
The Cosmos Redshift 7 Galaxy is one of the oldest galaxies astronomers have ever discovered. It is believed to have formed roughly 800 million years after the Big Bang took place. While it randomly got its name from soccer legend Cristiano Ronaldo, the two do not really have anything in common except the number. CR7 is a high-redshift, Lyman-alpha emitter galaxy. In simple terms, this means it is a distant galaxy that emits Lyman-alpha radiation from neutral hydrogen. CR7 also increases the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation while reducing its frequency. All of this then combines with photon energy.
What would alien worlds see if they looked in our direction? While they might have advanced equipment that we could not fathom, if they did not get closer to us then they’d never know we existed. The Earth did not come about until just under 5 billion years ago. However, our entire solar system did not exist before that time roughly. If that is not enough for you, the entire Milky Way galaxy did not form until 14 billion years ago. Thus, CR7 worlds would be seeing a slowly forming galaxy that would not include us for over ten billion years!!
The Butterfly Nebula is technically within the Milky Way and not a galaxy unto itself. However, it almost seems like its own galaxy due to its appearance. Scientists claim it is the most complex planetary nebulae ever discovered. With only one central star, it has to emit extreme heat to allow for such beautiful light to be seen. It is estimated to be one of the hottest stars ever discovered, with a surface temperature of 250,000 degrees Celcius or 450,032 degrees Fahrenheit. The interesting part? The star is a White Dwarf! The Hubble Space Telescope discovered it in 2009, and scientists were blown away.
The possible alien worlds here are likely seeing a developed Earth being between 3,000 to 6,000 lightyears away. Societies had already formed, along with several languages on top of early writing. The Pyramid of Giza among other man-made structures from the old world was built in this period. While several periods such as the Bronze and Iron Age happened during this period, the planet itself did not change massively on a geological end. However, several animals popped up or went extinct in this timeframe. Mankind was also a bit smaller than it would go on to become.
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