- Historic Period: Around 4,000 BCE – Ancient Mesopotamia
Metallurgy is one of the most critical areas in human history as it led to the development of weapons, armor, and much more. Of course, trying to shape and develop metal into something that one could use was not an easy process. Unlike other things on this list, the way we work with metal today is a bit different from the scientific techniques used by ancient people. The concept is still the same though. Metal is extracted, refined, and worked with. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese were all well-known for their work with metal. Yet this really all began in Mesopotamia around 4,000 BCE.