- Historic Period: Pre-10,000 BCE – Various
Agriculture is perhaps the most important of ALL scientific techniques used by ancient people on this list. Without it, we’d likely never survive as a species. It used to be that tribes would come together and often go out on hunts to attain food. Others might gather up berries, nuts, or whatever else they could find. Yet both would become problematic and cause people to move around. Agriculture changed all of that, as you could plant crops at specific times of the year and store a large amount of food. Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese all developed their own forms of agriculture. However, the earliest known agricultural system dates back to Mesopotamia in 8,000 BCE. Yet the idea of agriculture in general goes back much further.